To secure Spain as an ally against the English, Napoleon, then first consul of France, was engaged in complicated horse trading with his neighbouring country. As part of the deal, in October 1800, Spain signed a “secret” agreement, the Treaty of San Ildefonso, with Napoleon returning the Louisiana Territory to France in exchange for six warships and the new kingdom of Etruria in Italy. This was completed when the two countries signed the Franco-Spanish Treaty of Aranjuez on March 21, 1801, and, on March 28 of the same year, the Franco-Neapolitan Treaty of Florence. In return for removing the reigning grand duke of Tuscany, Ferdinand III, the French compensated the Habsburg ruler with the Electorate of Salzburg. At the same time, to appease the Bourbon duke of Parma, whose duchy Napoleon had annexed to France, the duke’s son and heir became Louis I (1773–1803), the first king of Etruria. This new realm covered most of Tuscany, as we know it today, and was Napoleon’s first experiment in monarchy building. Nonetheless, the kingdom’s history was to be a fleeting one.