On the evening of February 3, 1865, King Vittorio Emanuele reluctantly made his official entrance into Florence, the new capital of the fledging Kingdom of Italy, moving from Turin. Florence remained the capital city for only five years, until 1870. But the influence of this moment continued long after Rome became the country’s definitive capital. Before 1865, Florence had remained largely unchanged from its medieval precedessor: encircled with walls, with Brunelleschi’s Cupola and other monumental buildings as the focal points, the city benefitted from an age-old balance of buildings and open spaces and gardens. However, on becoming the Italian capital, the city’s role changed and the need to resolve certain functional inadequacies of the old urban centre was quickly apparent. As dictated by new economic and social needs, Florence underwent an extensive urban renewal effort between 1865 and 1895. The man in charge of the redevelopment was Giuseppe Poggi.