To encourage trade through the port of Livorno, Grand Duke Ferdinand I de’ Medici passed an edict in 1595 that allowed freedom of religion to all merchants. Soon, an English cemetery was established and, in 1600, a chapel was opened by the English Guild of Merchants. A Church of England congregation of largely British expatriates has been present in Florence since the early 1800s. From 1827, worshippers gathered in Palazzo Panciatichi-Ximenes d’Aragona in borgo Pinti, seat of the British delegation to the Court of the Grand Duchy of Tuscany. Other temporary solutions were found with the passing of time, including the English worshipping together at the Swiss Church, which met in Bianca Cappello’s house in via Maggio and later in via dei Serragli. In 1837, the first Anglican Church outside Livorno had been established and the Club des Anglais inaugurated in Bagni di Lucca, a fashionable resort for English travellers. British residents in Florence also felt the need for a place of worship of their own. In 1844, the first Holy Trinity Church was built in via La Marmora. The later Gothic structure, today’s Waldensian Church, was consecrated in 1904.